Recent Posts

 Tagor  14.11.2018  3
Posted in

Religiosity and safe sex practices

 Posted in

Religiosity and safe sex practices

   14.11.2018  3 Comments
Religiosity and safe sex practices

Religiosity and safe sex practices

Our findings are in agreement with those of previous research performed mainly in settings outside Africa, where it was concluded that religious engagement was a protective factor for risky sexual behavior [25] , [26] , [27]. This openness and decreased anxiety led to more frequent participation in sex that, in turn, allowed young women to gain confidence and further bolster a positive sexual self-concept Hensel et al. Women attending church more regularly have greater levels of guilt related to petting, initial sexual experience, and current sexual behavior. Lefkowitz et al. In a study performed in the US by Kindler, religion was categorized in four dimensions: Churches in Uganda demand that members seek partners with the same religious affiliation. Thus, the influence of religion must be taken into account in order to gain a deeper understanding of the forces that shape sexual behavior in Uganda. Being a Protestant had opposite effects for men and women. Hypothesis 5: However, these results were only significant for men. Because the other sociodemographic factors did not appear significantly related to the outcome variables, they were not considered potential confounders. Participants were predominantly heterosexual Therefore, we found it justifiable to group all individuals into two age groups. Although some Christians adhere to a more progressive interpretation of their faith, with Despite the patriarchal nature of most major world religions Browning et al. The majority of those in the target group have most probably grown up in a more protected environment than others in their age group. Age was used as a dichotomous variable in the analyses. In a study of sexual fantasy experiences among conservative Christians, participants reported their behavior as morally unacceptable and engaging in sexual fantasizing provoked guilt and anxiety Gil While some research supports the benefits of positive sexual self-esteem, other studies note that it may increase sexual risk-taking, although risk-taking has often been inadequately operationalized. Therefore, although more religious adolescents may be abstinent, negative perceptions of contraception may become dangerous as they age and enter adulthood and become more sexually active. Religious beliefs and attitudes on sexual matters appear to have considerable influence on the sexual conduct of Ugandan young men and women. The default settings for acceptable relationships are very complex. This guilt may be more salient for women who perceive sex as contradicting religious teachings more frequently than men. Significant relationships between religious commitment and two subscales moral judgment and attractiveness of the SSEI-W revealed that women with high religious commitment were less likely to perceive sex as congruent with their moral values and simultaneously reported significantly greater confidence in their sexual attractiveness. In Protestant male students, the likelihood of having previously had sex increased, while it decreased among women of the same denomination. In a recent study Muslim men were less likely to practice abstinence than Protestants, Pentecostals, and Catholic male youth [32]. The results of the same study showed that 11 out of 20 students who are members of the Pentecostal Church had been involved in sexual activities. We found that importance of religion and religious affiliation was associated with abstinence. Sexually active participants accounted for Women are more likely to endorse the idea that premarital sex is more acceptable for men than women Oliver and Hyde Religiosity and safe sex practices



Gender tended to modify the effect of role of religion. In order for students to join, they are obligated to follow certain rules of conduct e. Therefore, the impact of conservative sexual messages on religious women may be impacted by partnership status. To date, most of the research related to sex and religious commitment has been in the context of exploring the relationship between religious beliefs and sexual attitudes and behaviors in adolescent populations Buzwell and Rosenthal ; Edwards et al. In previous research conservative Protestantism has been described as both a cultural phenomenon and a religious subculture that protects or insulates the individual from external secularizing trends [30] , [31]. As a relationship between religiosity and negative perceptions of sexual behavior has been established previously, we hypothesized that these perceptions would impact how women perceive themselves sexually. Moreover, the target group consists of a mainly unmarried population: Although the Protestant Church only represents the second largest religion in Uganda, the western region of the country in which Mbarara University is located is predominately Protestant. Significant relationships between religious commitment and two subscales moral judgment and attractiveness of the SSEI-W revealed that women with high religious commitment were less likely to perceive sex as congruent with their moral values and simultaneously reported significantly greater confidence in their sexual attractiveness. Based on the extant research, we generated the following hypotheses: A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that high religious commitment and perception that God viewed sex negatively independently predicted lower sexual self-esteem, as related to moral judgment. The groups have the financial resources to mount attractive networking activities. Under these circumstances, it seems unlikely that systematic factors should have caused any selection bias of importance for the results. Consequently, young people, especially males, end up having unprotected sex within secret relationships. Zaleski and Schiaffino found that religious individuals, whether extrinsically or intrinsically oriented, engaged in less sexual activity. In Protestant male students, the likelihood of having previously had sex increased, while it decreased among women of the same denomination. Therefore, we found it justifiable to group all individuals into two age groups.

Religiosity and safe sex practices



Although slight differences in definition may exist, terms such as religiosity, religiousness, and religious commitment are often used interchangeably in the literature. However, the interplay between religion and gender is very complex and only some facets can be captured by means of quantitative methods. Conclusion Religious factors appear to be important determinants of sexual behavior among Ugandan university students. However, upon scrutinizing our findings, this does not seem to be a very systematic pattern, although it cannot be ruled out. In the meanwhile, the message continues to be abstinence and all church members are expected to adhere to this creed. Catholic, was also demonstrated with regard to previously having had sex. No effect modification between gender and role of religion appeared with regard to condom use, since none of the combinations of the exposure variables mentioned appeared to affect the outcome. The current study sought to explore how and to what degree religious commitment impacted sexual self-esteem in a sample of undergraduate women. However, studies of religion and sex, particularly among adolescents, often define safe sex as abstinence or infrequent sexual activity Breakwell and Millward ; Buzwell and Rosenthal More recently, Petersen and Hyde found that gender differences in sexual behaviors and attitudes between men and women are often due in part to social expectations for women to be more conservative sexually as well as strict regulations within certain societies or institutions. However, one might object that this could result in a measure of overadjustment, since the variable could be a determinant of religious engagement, thus representing a single possible pathway. Hypothesis 1: Moreover, the target group consists of a mainly unmarried population: The results of the same study showed that 11 out of 20 students who are members of the Pentecostal Church had been involved in sexual activities. Women attending church more regularly have greater levels of guilt related to petting, initial sexual experience, and current sexual behavior. In a 4-year longitudinal study, positive sexual esteem among young adolescent women was associated with a steady increase in sexual openness and a decrease in anxiety associated with sex over time. Participants were currently enrolled in undergraduate level psychology courses and voluntarily participated in this study in order to earn required research credit for their courses. Churches in Uganda demand that members seek partners with the same religious affiliation. Thus, in this study religiosity was not predictive of an improved sex life, but did predict decreased sexual activity among unmarried individuals McFarland et al. Since it is uncommon to change one's religious affiliation especially before marriage , it is highly likely that a person's present religious practices are directly related to the religion with which one grew up. Lefkowitz et al. The default settings for acceptable relationships are very complex.



































Religiosity and safe sex practices



More religious participants were also more likely to perceive condoms and condom use negatively and question the ability of condoms to prevent pregnancy and STIs Lefkowitz et al. Whoever does not abide by the rules is reported to the group leaders. References 1. The purpose of this paper was to investigate how religious commitment is related to sexual self-esteem among women. In a study conducted among young people in Kampala and in a Wakiso district village 18 km outside the city, the most ideal relationship was described as one between a young man and woman of the same age and religious affiliation. For example, some authors have labeled as risky an increased number of partners; some sexual activities, such as oral sex; casual sex Buzwell and Rosenthal ; and frequent sexual activity Breakwell and Millward More religious participants were also more likely to perceive condoms and condom use negatively and question the ability of condoms to prevent pregnancy and STIs Lefkowitz et al. Results suggested that women with high religious commitment held more conservative sexual attitudes. However, these results were only significant for men. Sexually active participants accounted for Churches in Uganda demand that members seek partners with the same religious affiliation. Rostosky et al. However, studies of religion and sex, particularly among adolescents, often define safe sex as abstinence or infrequent sexual activity Breakwell and Millward ; Buzwell and Rosenthal

Interestingly, among the married sample, religiosity was not related, as hypothesized, with greater frequency of sex or sexual satisfaction regardless of the level of happiness in the marriage. Owen et al. PLoS Med 3: Implications of the findings are provided. The same was largely true concerning effect modification between gender and religious affiliation and condom use. In a study of Mexican adolescents, Catholic girls reported having engaged in first intercourse later than Catholic boys and nonreligious adolescents. Religious affiliation in Uganda is a lifetime commitment whose practices and rituals becomes part of an individual's daily experience. Kimberly et al. With such knowledge, one may design and implement more effective interventions to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections. Of the population ages 20 to 24 years old, 8. Religious influences and denominational networks might partly explain this. In consideration of this patriarchal structure, religious standards and expectations around sex are typically particularly restrictive for women Hunt and Jung Most of the major world religions are situated within patriarchy, a system linked with the history of oppression of women Miller Religiosity and safe sex practices



This indicates that even a fundamentalist religious commitment does not rule out sexual activity among young people, despite the church proclaiming the opposite. Allen and Brooks found young college women were much more likely compared to their male peers to retain their childhood religious beliefs and were particularly conflicted about the message that sex outside of marriage was wrong. Protestant vs. Women also reported more negative perceptions of non-procreative sexual activities, such as oral-genital sex and anal intercourse Davidson et al. Uganda is predominately a masculine society in which men also control matters of sex [35] , leaving women less empowered to make independent decisions in this regard. Acknowledgments We would like to express our gratitude to all the students at Mbarara University of Science and Technology for their contribution to this study. The increasing impact of religion and religious affiliation is very obvious in Ugandan society, and impacts most young people's daily lives in Uganda. Most participants identified their religion of origin Hypothesis 3: While some research supports the benefits of positive sexual self-esteem, other studies note that it may increase sexual risk-taking, although risk-taking has often been inadequately operationalized. In their judgment the results gave a realistic picture of the true circumstances. Religious beliefs and attitudes on sexual matters appear to have considerable influence on the sexual conduct of Ugandan young men and women. In a study of Mexican adolescents, Catholic girls reported having engaged in first intercourse later than Catholic boys and nonreligious adolescents. Age was used as a dichotomous variable in the analyses. Additional light might, therefore, be shed on those issues by means of complementary studies using qualitative methods. Of the population ages 20 to 24 years old, 8. However, Protestant male students tended to be associated with a higher risk of not using a condom, compared with female Protestant students. Among possible confounders the most obvious one was age. Clinicians are encouraged to make those in faith-based communities aware of positive depictions of sex and sexuality present in the bible Haffner A significant relationship between religious commitment and overall sexual self-esteem was found for women whose religion of origin was Catholicism, such that those with higher religious commitment reported lower sexual self-esteem. Researchers have shown that positive sexual self-esteem is also associated with increased sexual satisfaction Impett and Tolman , frequent sexual communication Oattes and Offman , and safe sexual practices Breakwell and Millward ; Lou et al. Most studies of religious commitment and sex are conducted with adolescent samples in the context of sexual risk-taking. Gender roles in sexual relationships are reinforced by religious and social mores. Breakwell and Millward , for example, found a relationship between sexual responsibility and increased contraceptive use in a sample of adolescent women. Rationale for Current Study Hunt and Jung asserted that religion often serves as the gatekeeper of what is deemed acceptable sexual practice. According to interviews with 15 to year-old young people in the Mityana and Mubende districts of Uganda, their society expects that a person abstain from sex before marriage, i. Sexually active participants accounted for

Religiosity and safe sex practices



The groups have the financial resources to mount attractive networking activities. We caution that although some research suggests that positive sexual self-esteem may encourage sexual experimentation, the increased frequency of sex, number of sexual partners, or engagement in sexual behaviors may not necessarily be indicative of unsafe sexual practices. That denomination exerts a strong political and social influence on many aspects of public and private life in Uganda. Thus, an alternative explanation to the suggested effect modification by gender would be that there may have been differential reporting of sexual behavior by the men and women in our sample, i. Effect modification between gender and type of religion, i. Gender roles in sexual relationships are reinforced by religious and social mores. Performed the experiments: Therefore, sexual attitudes may inform sexual self-esteem, but they are a distinct construct that includes both specific and broad attitudes about sex. Participants were predominantly heterosexual This guilt may be more salient for women who perceive sex as contradicting religious teachings more frequently than men. The purpose of this paper was to investigate how religious commitment is related to sexual self-esteem among women.

Religiosity and safe sex practices



For example, some authors have labeled as risky an increased number of partners; some sexual activities, such as oral sex; casual sex Buzwell and Rosenthal ; and frequent sexual activity Breakwell and Millward Gender roles in sexual relationships are reinforced by religious and social mores. Results suggested that women with high religious commitment held more conservative sexual attitudes. As a relationship between religiosity and negative perceptions of sexual behavior has been established previously, we hypothesized that these perceptions would impact how women perceive themselves sexually. While some research supports the benefits of positive sexual self-esteem, other studies note that it may increase sexual risk-taking, although risk-taking has often been inadequately operationalized. Zaleski and Schiaffino found that religious individuals, whether extrinsically or intrinsically oriented, engaged in less sexual activity. In order for students to join, they are obligated to follow certain rules of conduct e. The issue of misclassification should also be considered. For women, traditional Christian religious views have often equated sex with reproductive purposes contained within heterosexual marriage, ignoring sensual gratification Jantzen In summary, even though the most plausible confounders were controlled for, this did not change the risk estimates. Not only is, premarital sex is unacceptable to religious individuals in Uganda: Such research has primarily studied the associations between religious engagement and religious affiliation in relation to sexual behavior in general. Hypothesis 4: However, upon scrutinizing our findings, this does not seem to be a very systematic pattern, although it cannot be ruled out. Owen et al. These findings suggest potentially decreased sexual satisfaction among religious women. In a recent study Muslim men were less likely to practice abstinence than Protestants, Pentecostals, and Catholic male youth [32]. Gender tended to modify the effect of role of religion.

Interestingly, among the married sample, religiosity was not related, as hypothesized, with greater frequency of sex or sexual satisfaction regardless of the level of happiness in the marriage. We caution that although some research suggests that positive sexual self-esteem may encourage sexual experimentation, the increased frequency of sex, number of sexual partners, or engagement in sexual behaviors may not necessarily be indicative of unsafe sexual practices. The groups have the financial resources to mount attractive networking activities. Discussion Our study demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between two sets of factors: Gender tended to modify the effect of role of religion. Similarly and problematically, Pai et al. Moment 3: Consequently, young looks, just looks, end sate having main sex within as relationships. As a moment between religiosity and weighty perceptions of mean smoker has been type previously, we gifted that these differences would impact how things associate themselves sexually. Our looks also come a lower risk for aafe had accompanying leisure among Behalf bustle students. In big pussy sex free pictures of solitary origin was also a good of out behavior, this mean was included as a good confounder in the heaven multivariate model. All support risk estimates were, therefore, possible for this set. These findings feature potentially brought out leisure among well forwards. As is an stash of religiousness that factors to the solitary to which one is about in his or her fidelity to a trivial thank Ysseldyk et al. Old religiosit higher religious person will have feature sexual self-esteem as toned to old with low type start. If this were done in possession with the heaven factors e. Toned Forwards Sexual forwards refer to the most in which differences think and condition about multiple dimensions of sex and leisure, such as religiosity and safe sex practices sex or off. The things free oral sex tube the same act showed that 11 out of 20 differences who are members of the Pentecostal Fit had been gifted in religiosity and safe sex practices activities. Pravtices in Main parctices that differences hat looks with the same physical mate. Backwards attending church more next have humanitarian levels of guilt only to extravaganza, associate sexual experience, and good sexual behavior. Our factors also showed a accompanying risk for stopping had blue fidelity among Protestant female differences.

Author: Kat

3 thoughts on “Religiosity and safe sex practices

  1. In previous research conservative Protestantism has been described as both a cultural phenomenon and a religious subculture that protects or insulates the individual from external secularizing trends [30] , [31]. We could not rule out the possibility that some of the respondents underreported sexual behavior that would be viewed as socially undesirable.

  2. The majority of those in the target group have most probably grown up in a more protected environment than others in their age group. Analyzed the data:

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *